08-14-2015, 11:41 AM   #571
jayann
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Orlando, Florida
''Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn's disease.''
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16225487

http://ibdcrohns.about.com/od/altern...ve-colitis.htm

''Dietary Gut Microbial Metabolites, Short-chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolic'' Regulation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4425176/

im supplementing with Inulin prebiotics in hope to increase my butyrate production. I could consider taking supplements.

@jayann: click on private messages on top right corner of the page., you shall be able to open my message there. It was a response to your questions about my experience with enteral diet.
I'm not sure this is accessing your private message. I'm still a little green at this blog.
08-14-2015, 11:51 AM   #572
jayann
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Orlando, Florida
I'm not sure this is accessing your private message. I'm still a little green at this blog.
I thought I had the "bull by the horn" with my VSL#3 DS and S. boulardi.
I ate quite a few servings of raw nuts over several days. I think it may have irritated my colon and caused inflammation. My doc doesn't think it's the nuts.
Anyway, I'm flaring. CRP was 79!!!!!!

So, I've been investigating SCD and started it this morning. It is counter to what I've been doing and very confusing. The idea is to STARVE bacteria who digest fiber that we can't digest. I've been trying to encourage them so they will make butyrate. However, the science and reasoning for SCD sounds good.
So am giving it a shot.

Presently on 60mg Pred (will start taper tomorrow) and Alinia. Feeling some improvement. Am going to do diet along with it.

I know a gentlemen in an organization I volunteer for whose wife was scheduled to start Humira and elected to do SCD instead. It took her about 2 months to see a difference. I got an email from him this morning. She has been on it since Nov. 2013 and is doing very well!!!! So I am optimistic,

Jay Ann
08-14-2015, 11:54 AM   #573
jayann
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Orlando, Florida
That is a shame - is anyone here on the board currently using enteric coated butyrate as a supplement?
I think you have to be a cow. I recall reading somewhere that they have an enteric coated through veterinarians for the cattle industry. Wish I remembered the source.
08-14-2015, 12:23 PM   #574
wildbill_52280
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I thought I had the "bull by the horn" with my VSL#3 DS and S. boulardi.
I ate quite a few servings of raw nuts over several days. I think it may have irritated my colon and caused inflammation. My doc doesn't think it's the nuts.
Anyway, I'm flaring. CRP was 79!!!!!!

So, I've been investigating SCD and started it this morning. It is counter to what I've been doing and very confusing. The idea is to STARVE bacteria who digest fiber that we can't digest. I've been trying to encourage them so they will make butyrate. However, the science and reasoning for SCD sounds good.
So am giving it a shot.

Presently on 60mg Pred (will start taper tomorrow) and Alinia. Feeling some improvement. Am going to do diet along with it.

I know a gentlemen in an organization I volunteer for whose wife was scheduled to start Humira and elected to do SCD instead. It took her about 2 months to see a difference. I got an email from him this morning. She has been on it since Nov. 2013 and is doing very well!!!! So I am optimistic,

Jay Ann
SCD diet which is in the book breaking the vicious cycle does attempt to starve pathogenic bacteria, this theory does help to some degree. It has just recently been investigated in a formal study and shown benefit to patients, which is good in terms of the academic world but patients who have tried the diet already know there is a benefit. Results will vary though. I have benefited from avoiding lactose and sucrose as the book book and the diet suggests. Also avoiding corn and rice has helped a bit, but beans actually provide great benefit for me and many studies show benefits to bowel health. Ive always had a hard time making the yogurt i never have been able to get all the lactose out even when fermenting beyond 24 hours, either way information in this book i have used and it has helped greatly. Your better off combining medications with the diet though, this will provide greatest supression of the disease. on another note, good bacteria need fiber to create short chain fatty acids and lower intestinal ph to help eliminate pathogens, the problem with IBD is that the bacteria that ferment fiber to create beneficial SCFA's are damaged many times, which allows more pathogens to access these nutrients and create toxins, so depending on how bad your bacteria are damaged and how many different pathogens you harbor will determine how you react to fiber.

I have started to create a scientific model of IBD to aid its management, it is the balance of variables that feed pathogen bacteria and and variables that kill bacteria, addressing these can allow fermentation to normalize and symptoms to improve. Inflammation feeds bad bacteria by creating nitrite and nitrate byproducts, suppressing inflammation can reduce pathogens and in a sense, starve them. This process is responsible for perhaps 70% of the issues of IBD, and is currently the state of treatment of modern medicine and its many times successful, but not 100%. Other ways of starving bacteria is the principles in the SCD diet and reducing intake of lactose sucrose and some complex polysacharides. Vitamin D boosts antimicrobial enzymes in the intestine and I believe keeping your blood levels as high as possible can boost these and help to address the other problems in our gut and other ways pathogens persist to cause symptoms. coconut oil is also one tool that can help kill bacteria in the gut, as are probiotics and fermented foods like cheese and yogurt. I believe after these issues are addressed and pathogens are as low as possible a person could increase their intake of fiber as supplements and then their gut will likley ferment them properly, now at this point it will create more scfa's and ph will be lowered and as you encounter pathogens in the environment they will never take hold in your gut to create symptoms, and you could possibly maintain a good remission indefinitly for life. But it has to happen in this order and is theoretical, but those are some of my opinions about IBD management at this point.
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08-17-2015, 11:55 AM   #575
wildbill_52280
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Bacteria still considered to play larger role then viruses in IBD.

Metagenomic Analysis of Crohn's Disease Patients Identifies Changes in the Virome and Microbiome Related to Disease Status and Therapy, and Detects Potential Interactions and Biomarkers.
http://journals.lww.com/ibdjournal/A...nts.99055.aspx
08-17-2015, 12:29 PM   #576
jayann
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Orlando, Florida
Bacteria still considered to play larger role then viruses in IBD.

Metagenomic Analysis of Crohn's Disease Patients Identifies Changes in the Virome and Microbiome Related to Disease Status and Therapy, and Detects Potential Interactions and Biomarkers.
http://journals.lww.com/ibdjournal/A...nts.99055.aspx
Wild Bill,

Thank you for all of your valuable information. Have you taken the Coursera Course through the University of Colorado, Rob Knight lab(moved this summer)?

Anway, it's very interesting, free, and can either be monitored or taken for a certificate which does have a charge. Some great presenters and information. I think you probably know most of the information it covers, but you might enjoy it anyway.

When I feel better and my brain is functioning better I'll do a better job of replying to your posts.

jayann
08-17-2015, 12:44 PM   #577
wildbill_52280
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Wild Bill,

Thank you for all of your valuable information. Have you taken the Coursera Course through the University of Colorado, Rob Knight lab(moved this summer)?

Anway, it's very interesting, free, and can either be monitored or taken for a certificate which does have a charge. Some great presenters and information. I think you probably know most of the information it covers, but you might enjoy it anyway.

When I feel better and my brain is functioning better I'll do a better job of replying to your posts.

jayann
No but I would like to. Won't be able to anytime soon.
08-17-2015, 11:42 PM   #578
Lady Organic
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4532993/

''Variable alterations of the microbiota, without metabolic or immunological change, following faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with chronic pouchitis''

not very encouraging results, but maybe due to suboptimal FMT protocol...
__________________
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on: 25mg 6-MP (purinethol)+ B12 shots
minor hands/wrists chronic arthritis since 01/2013

Diet: ''IBD-AID'' : http://www.nutritionj.com/content/13/1/5+ organic food only
suppl Curcuminoid extract, Inulin,psyllium, apple pectin, Vitamin D

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08-20-2015, 10:57 PM   #579
Rebel1992
 
Join Date: Jun 2015
Location: denmark, Denmark
SCD diet which is in the book breaking the vicious cycle does attempt to starve pathogenic bacteria, this theory does help to some degree. It has just recently been investigated in a formal study and shown benefit to patients, which is good in terms of the academic world but patients who have tried the diet already know there is a benefit. Results will vary though. I have benefited from avoiding lactose and sucrose as the book book and the diet suggests. Also avoiding corn and rice has helped a bit, but beans actually provide great benefit for me and many studies show benefits to bowel health. Ive always had a hard time making the yogurt i never have been able to get all the lactose out even when fermenting beyond 24 hours, either way information in this book i have used and it has helped greatly. Your better off combining medications with the diet though, this will provide greatest supression of the disease. on another note, good bacteria need fiber to create short chain fatty acids and lower intestinal ph to help eliminate pathogens, the problem with IBD is that the bacteria that ferment fiber to create beneficial SCFA's are damaged many times, which allows more pathogens to access these nutrients and create toxins, so depending on how bad your bacteria are damaged and how many different pathogens you harbor will determine how you react to fiber.

I have started to create a scientific model of IBD to aid its management, it is the balance of variables that feed pathogen bacteria and and variables that kill bacteria, addressing these can allow fermentation to normalize and symptoms to improve. Inflammation feeds bad bacteria by creating nitrite and nitrate byproducts, suppressing inflammation can reduce pathogens and in a sense, starve them. This process is responsible for perhaps 70% of the issues of IBD, and is currently the state of treatment of modern medicine and its many times successful, but not 100%. Other ways of starving bacteria is the principles in the SCD diet and reducing intake of lactose sucrose and some complex polysacharides. Vitamin D boosts antimicrobial enzymes in the intestine and I believe keeping your blood levels as high as possible can boost these and help to address the other problems in our gut and other ways pathogens persist to cause symptoms. coconut oil is also one tool that can help kill bacteria in the gut, as are probiotics and fermented foods like cheese and yogurt. I believe after these issues are addressed and pathogens are as low as possible a person could increase their intake of fiber as supplements and then their gut will likley ferment them properly, now at this point it will create more scfa's and ph will be lowered and as you encounter pathogens in the environment they will never take hold in your gut to create symptoms, and you could possibly maintain a good remission indefinitly for life. But it has to happen in this order and is theoretical, but those are some of my opinions about IBD management at this point.
Wildbill,
This is an interesting post.
I do hope you remember me from the fmt.
Anyways what i havent posted in this forum regarding fmt, is that i recently tried 2 attempts again with a different donor. And this donor is the most ideal from the consistent stool shape texture colour and past antibiotic use none.
Anyways, i would like to give you a detailed history regarding my fmt attempts, since only my first donors stool (parent) worked and she has ibs systems but not really bothered by it.
It didnt work per se, but rather i gained her obesity trait 25pounds gain in 3 months while having D. Never been obese in my life. Always hovered around below 130 @ 5'9
...now @155 despite calorie intake of less than 1500.
So i definitelt got that effect passed. But the other 2 donors, effects of normal stool are shrort lived.

Anyways..my question was... do you think being in a flare affects the succes of fmt.
Do you think a long fast which will bring down flaring in most patients and then fmt after work better?

Simce my mother has ibs symtoms and i did fmt during that period allowed her flora to take hold better due to inflammation etc?

Would love to get yr thoughts on this.
08-22-2015, 01:26 PM   #580
wildbill_52280
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An interview with a scientist working in the microbiome field.
http://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2015/0...re-to-explore/
08-23-2015, 08:01 AM   #581
jayann
 
Join Date: Jul 2015
Location: Orlando, Florida
An interview with a scientist working in the microbiome field.
http://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2015/0...re-to-explore/
Thanks, very interesting.

We haven't begun to even see the tip of the iceberg. The microbiome will be the next great shift in medicine, after such events as Harvey and the Circulatory system and the advent of antibiotics. I think it I tremendously exciting!!
08-23-2015, 09:52 AM   #582
7vNH
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I have a question about a specific risk of FMT, if it has been researched, and what the conclusions were, if any. I think the answer is "we still don't know", but this would be the thread to find out.

First, let me say that I think that even with the "shotgun" approach that FMT is, the "reward" wins if one has active, serious disease. By this I mean that we're not targeting specific gut microbes to eliminate and adding specific gut microbes, but rather adding a range of microbes and hoping that, after the resulting 'battle', more "good" ones remain than before.

The question: how likely is it that one may acquire an autoimmune disease from FMT?

Here's an example to illustrate the risk I'm talking about. Say you have a donor that's never taken an antibiotic, has eaten like her great grandmother her whole life, passed all of the current disease screens, etc, etc. At age 30, she's the picture of health. What we don't know is that at age 50, she will come-down with rheumatoid arthritis (accepted as an autoimmune disease). Since FMT can change the microbiome in such a way to improve autoimmune diseases (if you're reading this forum, this is probably something you have accepted already), then could not the FMT from this "perfect" donor put you at risk?

What I am proposing here is that the "perfect" donor has microbe profile that will result in an autoimmune disease in the future. By accepting that donor microbiome, the recipient might be adding risk of acquiring a disease to which they were not formerly predisposed. Science currently doesn't know enough about how to identify microbiome profiles to tell us why we have gut disease, much less how to identify microbiome profiles that will cause some future autoimmune disease.

My justification for this risk is, first, the possible immediate removal of the need for surgery and/or immune suppressing drugs. That is a huge reward that can take a miserable life into one of normalcy. And second, the reasonable likelihood that, through genomics of the microbiome, more will be learned and specific microbial treatments will come about to address any problems introduced through today's rather unscientific approach to altering gut microbiome in patients with serious gut issues.
08-23-2015, 02:04 PM   #583
wildbill_52280
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I have a question about a specific risk of FMT, if it has been researched, and what the conclusions were, if any. I think the answer is "we still don't know", but this would be the thread to find out.

First, let me say that I think that even with the "shotgun" approach that FMT is, the "reward" wins if one has active, serious disease. By this I mean that we're not targeting specific gut microbes to eliminate and adding specific gut microbes, but rather adding a range of microbes and hoping that, after the resulting 'battle', more "good" ones remain than before.

The question: how likely is it that one may acquire an autoimmune disease from FMT?

Here's an example to illustrate the risk I'm talking about. Say you have a donor that's never taken an antibiotic, has eaten like her great grandmother her whole life, passed all of the current disease screens, etc, etc. At age 30, she's the picture of health. What we don't know is that at age 50, she will come-down with rheumatoid arthritis (accepted as an autoimmune disease). Since FMT can change the microbiome in such a way to improve autoimmune diseases (if you're reading this forum, this is probably something you have accepted already), then could not the FMT from this "perfect" donor put you at risk?

What I am proposing here is that the "perfect" donor has microbe profile that will result in an autoimmune disease in the future. By accepting that donor microbiome, the recipient might be adding risk of acquiring a disease to which they were not formerly predisposed. Science currently doesn't know enough about how to identify microbiome profiles to tell us why we have gut disease, much less how to identify microbiome profiles that will cause some future autoimmune disease.

My justification for this risk is, first, the possible immediate removal of the need for surgery and/or immune suppressing drugs. That is a huge reward that can take a miserable life into one of normalcy. And second, the reasonable likelihood that, through genomics of the microbiome, more will be learned and specific microbial treatments will come about to address any problems introduced through today's rather unscientific approach to altering gut microbiome in patients with serious gut issues.
So far in 1000 patients treated with FMT mostly for C. difficile, very few negative events have been reported. That's all we have to go on so far but things are looking good in terms of safety. The donor of course must be free of disease to reduce risk. Some people have developed new autoimmune diseases after FMT, so it has happened, it's absolutely not risk free. The rewards are pretty great though if one can do it successfully.
08-26-2015, 09:46 PM   #584
Lady Organic
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very valid and... scary question 7vNH. They predict, what or maybe even actual stats... about 1 person out of 2 will have cancer in their live... How many will have chronic inflammatory conditions, 1/2 or prolly more...? I feel its quite rare in north america to find people who live long, disease free and meds free... so with such reasoning, basically very few people could be an interesting donor.

I personally dont feel that ''genes'' are passed through stools.
I belive that an impaired microbiome can trigger all kinds of cancers and chronic inflammatory conditions, but only if the genes are present in the person. It only depends what our bad genes are. so if you dont have the specific genes to develop for instance rheumatoid arthritis or pancreas cancer, then you would not develop them.
Impaired microbiomes must share some similaries before the development of all kinds of conditions and i tend to think for instance that people with CD, psoriasis, RA or cancer will share similar microbiomes when disease is active. So IDEALLY stool samples should be screened before transplant, making sure they are of optimal level of benefiacial bacterias, what is already being done and accepted in many places I believe.
It becomes quite obvious then that the optimal donnor will be young, does a lot of physical activity and eat very well, a Life style that is less likely to trigger disease and has been said a ''protective factor''. ''eating well'' as yet to be defined...

the people who have developped other auto-immnune disease after a FMT, (for which i'd like to have more info) were prolly predisposed or ''intended'' to develop them prior to the FMT. I doubt the disease came from their donor... well just my thoughts...
08-26-2015, 10:43 PM   #585
hugh
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At age 30, she's the picture of health. What we don't know is that at age 50, she will come-down with rheumatoid arthritis (accepted as an autoimmune disease). Since FMT can change the microbiome in such a way to improve autoimmune diseases (if you're reading this forum, this is probably something you have accepted already), then could not the FMT from this "perfect" donor put you at risk?
The short answer is we don't know.
the long answer is that there is far more evidence to suggest that some foods cause changes in microbiota that lead to auto-immune disease (particularly thyroid and celiac (at this stage))

Introduced bacteria (and those already present) will only thrive if they are fed and have a conducive environment.

Incidentally (and anecdotally) my arthritis has disappeared after dietary changes

very valid and... scary question 7vNH. They predict, what or maybe even actual stats... about 1 person out of 2 will have cancer in their live... .......I personally dont feel that ''genes'' are passed through stools.
I belive that an impaired microbiome can trigger all kinds of cancers and chronic inflammatory conditions, but only if the genes are present in the person
20 day diet swap between african americans and rural south africans.
Huge change in cancer risk markers.

“We were astounded by the gravity and the magnitude of the changes. In Africans, the diet changes produced microbiota that were cancerous."
http://thinkprogress.org/health/2015...he-motherland/

"In comparison with their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk,"
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/15...comms7342.html
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08-27-2015, 09:25 AM   #586
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The short answer is we don't know.
the long answer is that there is far more evidence to suggest that some foods cause changes in microbiota that lead to auto-immune disease (particularly thyroid and celiac (at this stage)) ...
"We don't know..." hits the nail on the head. There are so many variables. For example, there is the field of epigenomics that tries to look at how various factors influence gene transcription. For instance this paper.
08-28-2015, 12:22 PM   #587
wildbill_52280
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Fecal Transplants in the press.

http://www.cnn.com/2015/08/26/health...ine/index.html
http://wqad.com/2015/08/27/thousands...plant-program/
09-08-2015, 04:57 PM   #588
wildbill_52280
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An article about the loss of biodiversity among microbiome associated with "westernization" implying antibiotics playing a large role.
http://www.independent.ie/life/healt...-31468371.html
09-09-2015, 06:33 AM   #589
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very interesting article. Thanks.
09-27-2015, 10:08 PM   #590
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''The adoptive transfer of behavioral phenotype via the intestinal microbiota: experimental evidence and clinical implications.'' :

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845749

http://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/...al_transplants

I watched the lead investigator Dr Stephen Collins on a tv documentary talked about his reasearch on mouse microbiota and FMT.

So now what I understand that even personality traits could be passed on FMT...

so my personal thoughts are that we have to investigate personality of donor as well, this is getting complicated and worrisome... We have seen also that obesity pattern could be passed on... Im starting to question more and more the possibility of transfering other diseases the donor may have in store in his future...

Last edited by Lady Organic; 09-28-2015 at 08:05 AM.
09-28-2015, 03:46 AM   #591
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Omg, that is somewhat scary!

So if I digest dairy, do I become a docile cow?
09-29-2015, 01:27 PM   #592
wildbill_52280
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''The adoptive transfer of behavioral phenotype via the intestinal microbiota: experimental evidence and clinical implications.'' :

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845749

http://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/...al_transplants

I watched the lead investigator Dr Stephen Collins on a tv documentary talked about his reasearch on mouse microbiota and FMT.

So now what I understand that even personality traits could be passed on FMT...

so my personal thoughts are that we have to investigate personality of donor as well, this is getting complicated and worrisome... We have seen also that obesity pattern could be passed on... Im starting to question more and more the possibility of transfering other diseases the donor may have in store in his future...
Personality is due to many factors, I think a better way of thinking about it is to be concerned about the psychological health to the donor. Severe anxiety disorders, depression or delusions should eliminate them as a donor for FMT.
09-29-2015, 03:14 PM   #593
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from what I understood it goes beyond mental health disorders. Personality trait /style is what the dr Collins is observing being passed on in his lab. I for one do not suffer from psychiatric disorder, but I clearly have a anxious type of personality compared to many people. I am very often smooth and easy and this is what most people see and think of me. But people who know me really well will know my inner core/instinct is anxious. In the documentary, Dr Collins mentionned he notices many of his IBS patients in his GI practice for instance have this personality profile. (he didnt talk about IBD).
So, personally, I would not want my donor to have this style or aggressive style (and we know how many people can be aggressive which is another form of anxiety I believe.) Having people to admit they have a tendency for aggressivity or anxiety is difficult to get. I met quite a lot of people in my life who are all glitters and smiles but when getting to know them more intimately, they turn out to be really problematic (aggressive) people (screaming, always wanting to fight, etc). Taking stool sample from random donors in medical settings for instance becomes somewhat of a gamble in my opinion. So i would really want to look for someone who is known to to be truly smooth and easy. maybe I am overly concerned, but it is definately worth thinking about it in light of the the research by Dr. Collins.
09-29-2015, 03:33 PM   #594
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I couldn't agree more, Lady. From looking forward to this procedure becoming standard practice to help gut issues, I now feel as though I wouldn't trust the medical world to investigate the characteristics of a donors personality. It is scary at this point. Wonder if it's anything like those people who receive transplants of organs and suddenly have a love of poetry when actually they were perhaps more aggressive sports minded, such as rugby or American football. They can't understand why the change until they research the donors character and discover they loved poetry.
09-29-2015, 08:38 PM   #595
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I must say I must reconsider my choice if you tell me I could play rugby or football in the future... that would be a MIRACLE
10-06-2015, 01:53 PM   #596
wildbill_52280
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An excerpt from a recent Paper by Professor Thomas J. Borody.

Clostridium difficile can be eradicated in patients with IBD even though the IBD is rarely cured. Whilst occasionally curable, IBD can respond to FMT, especially if the procedure is administered repeatedly, and can result in a “remission”. In 1988, we administered FMT to a patient at CDD for colitis in the absence of CDI — the first of such patients to receive FMT at our facility. Her indeterminate colitis completely disappeared over several weeks and has not recurred over the past 26 years of follow-up [35,36]. We term such profound IBD remission as a “Sporadic remission” after FMT. Figure 1 documents a more recent example of a CDD patient who had 14 days of FMT, after which her colitis reversed completely to normality for 3 years even though she did not have CDI. Based upon our extended experience over 24 years of using FMT in colitis patients [37], we believe that FMT researchers, as a group, can modify treatment paradigms to achieve better cure results and not just short term remissions.

Last edited by wildbill_52280; 10-07-2015 at 11:49 AM.
10-09-2015, 02:41 PM   #597
wildbill_52280
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New article today from the New York Times on the Microbiome and Fecal Transplants.

Excerpt:
North York General Hospital in Toronto recently completed a pilot study banking incoming patients’ own stool. Should any of these patients develop infections after antibiotics, their own microbes were on hand for reconstitution.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York has also started a proactive stool-banking study. Most of the subjects are patients with leukemia. Before stem cell transplants, patients receive antibiotics and chemotherapy, often wiping out their microbiota.
Dr. Eric Pamer, a physician and scientist at Memorial Sloan Kettering, has discovered that the diversity of the microbiota just after the stem cell transplant predicts well-being and survival. Those with the least diverse microbiomes after surgery were five times less likely to remain alive three years later, when compared with those with the most diverse.
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/11/op...tool.html?_r=0
10-09-2015, 02:46 PM   #598
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That is an amazing idea!
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TI resection surgery June 2013
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10-22-2015, 01:28 PM   #599
wildbill_52280
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A microbiome transplant of oral bacteria for treating periodontitis.
http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/jason-t...b_8319670.html

Last edited by wildbill_52280; 10-23-2015 at 11:29 AM.
10-23-2015, 11:29 AM   #600
wildbill_52280
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A short article from CBS news on Fecal Transplants.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/fecal-tr...n-experts-say/


Another article about FMT.
https://upvoted.com/2015/10/22/a-fec...saved-my-life/
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