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06-06-2013, 10:24 AM   #1
kiny
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AIEC Index

AIEC, Crohn's Disease, Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli


1988

Adhesive Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease and infective diarrhoea.

Burke DA, Axon AT.

Leeds, UK

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3044496


1989

Epithelial cell invasion: an overlooked property of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) associated with the EPEC adherence factor.

Donnenberg MS, Donohue-Rolfe A, Keusch GT.

Massachusetts, USA

http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/160/3/452.long


1993

An immunocytochemical search for infectious agents in Crohn's disease.

Cartun RW, Van Kruiningen HJ, Pedersen CA, Berman MM.

Connecticut, USA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8483893


1999

Invasive ability of an Escherichia coli strain isolated from the ileal mucosa of a patient with Crohn's disease.

Jerome Boudeau, Anne-Lise Glasser, Estelle Masseret, Bernard Joly, and Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC96770/


2001

Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli Strains from Patients with Crohn's Disease Survive and Replicate within Macrophages without Inducing Host Cell Death

Glasser AL, Boudeau J, Barnich N, Perruchot MH, Colombel JF, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...f/ii005529.pdf




2003

Regulatory and functional co-operation of flagella and type 1 pili in adhesive and invasive abilities of AIEC strain LF82 isolated from a patient with Crohn's disease.


Barnich N, Boudeau J, Claret L, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...0D75BBB.d04t03




2004

High prevalence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli associated with ileal mucosa in Crohn's disease.

Darfeuille-Michaud A, Boudeau J, Bulois P, Neut C, Glasser AL, Barnich N, Bringer MA, Swidsinski A, Beaugerie L, Colombel JF.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.gastrojournal.org/article...ubmed/15300573


2005

HtrA Stress Protein Is Involved in Intramacrophagic Replication of Adherent and Invasive Escherichia coli Strain LF82 Isolated from a Patient with Crohn's Disease

Marie-Agnès Bringer,1 Nicolas Barnich,1 Anne-Lise Glasser,1 Olivier Bardot,2 and Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud1

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...df/0770-04.pdf


2006

The Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli strain LF82 replicates in mature phagolysosomes within J774 macrophages.

Marie-Agnès Bringer, Anne-Lise Glasser, Ching-Hsuan Tung, Stéphane Méresse, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...639.x/abstract

Familial expression of anti-Escherichia coli outer membrane porin C in relatives of patients with Crohn's disease.

Mei L, Targan SR, Landers CJ, Dutridge D, Ippoliti A, Vasiliauskas EA, Papadakis KA, Fleshner PR, Rotter JI, Yang H.

http://www.gastrojournal.org/article...text#section15

2007

Culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive Escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of Clostridiales in Crohn's disease involving the ileum.

Baumgart M, Dogan B, Rishniw M, Weitzman G, Bosworth B, Yantiss R, Orsi RH, Wiedmann M, McDonough P, Kim SG, Berg D, Schukken Y, Scherl E, Simpson KW.

Ithaca, USA

http://www.nature.com/ismej/journal/...ej200752a.html

OmpC and the sigma(E) regulatory pathway are involved in adhesion and invasion of the Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli strain LF82.

Rolhion N, Carvalho FA, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...638.x/abstract


Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli isolated from Crohn's disease patients induce granulomas in vitro.

Meconi S, Vercellone A, Levillain F, Payré B, Al Saati T, Capilla F, Desreumaux P, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Altare F.

Toulouse, France

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...868.x/abstract


CEACAM6 acts as a receptor for adherent-invasive E. coli, supporting ileal mucosa colonization in Crohn disease

Nicolas Barnich,Frédéric A. Carvalho, Anne-Lise Glasser, Claude Darcha, Peter Jantscheff, Matthieu Allez,5 Harald Peeters, Gilles Bommelaer, Pierre Desreumaux, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, and Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...JCI0730504.pdf




CARD15 variants determine a disturbed early response of monocytes to adherent-invasive Escherichia coli strain LF82 in Crohn's disease.

Peeters H, Bogaert S, Laukens D, Rottiers P, De Keyser F, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Glasser AL, Elewaut D, De Vos M

Ghent, Belgium

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...670.x/abstract


The oxidoreductase DsbA plays a key role in the ability of the Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli strain LF82 to resist macrophage killing

Bringer MA, Rolhion N, Glasser AL, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...df/0233-07.pdf




The flagellar sigma factor FliA regulates adhesion and invasion of Crohn disease-associated Escherichia coli via a cyclic dimeric GMP-dependent pathway.

Claret L, Miquel S, Vieille N, Ryjenkov DA, Gomelsky M, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.jbc.org/content/282/46/33275.long


The effects of low-shear stress on Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli

Christopher A. Allen, David W. Niesel, Alfredo G. Torres

Texas, USA

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...567.x/abstract


Escherichia coli isolated from a Crohn's disease patient adheres, invades, and induces inflammatory responses in polarized intestinal epithelial cells.

Eaves-Pyles T, Allen CA, Taormina J, Swidsinski A, Tutt CB, Jezek GE, Islas-Islas M, Torres AG.

Texas, USA

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...38422107001233


2008

Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli LF82 aggravates colitis in injured mouse colon via signaling by flagellin.

Carvalho FA, Barnich N, Sauvanet P, Darcha C, Gelot A, Darfeuille-Michaud A

Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli LF82 aggravates colitis in injured mouse colon via signaling by flagellin

2009

Enterovirulent E. coli in inflammatory and noninflammatory bowel diseases.

Curová K, Kmetová M, Sabol M, Gombosová L, Lazúrová I, Siegfried L.

Kosice, Slovakia

http://link.springer.com/article/10....223-009-0012-y


Molecular diversity of Escherichia coli in the human gut: new ecological evidence supporting the role of adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) in Crohn's disease.

Martinez-Medina M, Aldeguer X, Lopez-Siles M, González-Huix F, López-Oliu C, Dahbi G, Blanco JE, Blanco J, Garcia-Gil LJ, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Girona, Spain

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19235912


Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli, strain LF82 disrupts apical junctional complexes in polarized epithelia.


Eytan Wine, Juan C Ossa, Scott D Gray-Owen, and Philip M Sherman

Toronto, Canada

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...2180-9-180.pdf


Biofilm formation as a novel phenotypic feature of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC).

Martinez-Medina M, Naves P, Blanco J, Aldeguer X, Blanco JE, Blanco M, Ponte C, Soriano F, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Garcia-Gil LJ

Girona, Spain

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2759958/


Crohn's disease adherent-invasive Escherichia coli colonize and induce strong gut inflammation in transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM.

Carvalho FA, Barnich N, Sivignon A, Darcha C, Chan CH, Stanners CP, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757893/


Phylogenetic analysis of inflammatory bowel disease associated Escherichia coli and the fimH virulence determinant.

Sepehri S, Kotlowski R, Bernstein CN, Krause DO.

Manitoba, Canada

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19462430


Similarity and divergence among adherent-invasive Escherichia coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains.

Martinez-Medina M, Mora A, Blanco M, López C, Alonso MP, Bonacorsi S, Nicolas-Chanoine MH, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Garcia-Gil J, Blanco J.

Girona, Spain

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786640/


Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive E. coli are selectively favoured by impaired autophagy to replicate intracellularly.

Lapaquette P, Glasser AL, Huett A, Xavier RJ, Darfeuille-Michaud A

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...381.x/abstract


Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli target the epithelial barrier

Wine E, Ossa JC, Gray-Owen SD, Sherman PM.

Alberta, Canada

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3023584/


2010

Role of decreased levels of Fis histone-like protein in Crohn's disease-associated adherent invasive Escherichia coli LF82 bacteria interacting with intestinal epithelial cells.

Miquel S, Claret L, Bonnet R, Dorboz I, Barnich N, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838056/


Abnormal CEACAM6 expression in Crohn disease patients favors gut colonization and inflammation by adherent-invasive E. coli.

Barnich N, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.landesbioscience.com/jour...ache=895750331


Complete genome sequence of Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive E. coli strain LF82.

Miquel S, Peyretaillade E, Claret L, de Vallée A, Dossat C, Vacherie B, Zineb el H, Segurens B, Barbe V, Sauvanet P, Neut C, Colombel JF, Medigue C, Mojica FJ, Peyret P, Bonnet R, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941450/




Abnormally expressed ER stress response chaperone Gp96 in CD favours adherent-invasive Escherichia coli invasion.

Rolhion N, Barnich N, Bringer MA, Glasser AL, Ranc J, Hébuterne X, Hofman P, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976078/


Genome sequence of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli and comparative genomic analysis with other E. coli pathotypes.

Nash JH, Villegas A, Kropinski AM, Aguilar-Valenzuela R, Konczy P, Mascarenhas M, Ziebell K, Torres AG, Karmali MA, Coombes BK.

Ontario, Canada

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091784/




Role of meprins to protect ileal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients from colonization by adherent-invasive E. coli.

Vazeille E, Bringer MA, Gardarin A, Chambon C, Becker-Pauly C, Pender SL, Jakob C, Müller S, Lottaz D, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116889/


Translocation of Crohn's disease Escherichia coli across M-cells: contrasting effects of soluble plant fibres and emulsifiers.

Roberts CL, Keita AV, Duncan SH, O'Kennedy N, Söderholm JD, Rhodes JM, Campbell BJ

Liverpool, UK.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2976079/


2011

Crohn disease--associated adherent-invasive E. coli bacteria target mouse and human Peyer's patches via long polar fimbriae.

Chassaing B, Rolhion N, de Vallée A, Salim SY, Prorok-Hamon M, Neut C, Campbell BJ, Söderholm JD, Hugot JP, Colombel JF, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049390/


A role for the RNA chaperone Hfq in controlling adherent-invasive Escherichia coli colonization and virulence.


Karina T. Simonsen, Gorm Nielsen, Janni Vester Bjerrum, Thomas Kruse, Birgitte H. Kallipolitis, Jakob Møller-Jensen

Odense, Denmark

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0016387


The endoplasmic reticulum stress response chaperone: Gp96, a host receptor for Crohn disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli.

Rolhion N, Hofman P, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Auvergne, France

http://www.landesbioscience.com/jour...che=1131403153


Analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from patients affected by Crohn's disease.

Raso T, Crivellaro S, Chirillo MG, Pais P, Gaia E, Savoia D.

Turin, Italy

http://link.springer.com/article/10....284-011-9947-8


Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli phenotype displayed by intestinal pathogenic E. coli strains from cats, dogs, and swine.

Martinez-Medina M, Garcia-Gil J, Barnich N, Wieler LH, Ewers C.

Girona, Spain

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165260/




Crohn disease-associated Escherichia coli promote gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders by activation of HIF-dependent responses.

Mimouna S, Gonçalvès D, Barnich N, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Hofman P, Vouret-Craviari V.

Nice, France

http://www.landesbioscience.com/jour...che=1310052539


Ex vivo intestinal adhesion of Escherichia coli LF82 in Crohn's disease.

Jensen SR, Fink LN, Nielsen OH, Brynskov J, Brix S.

Lyngby, Denmark

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...82401011001604


Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli induce claudin-2 expression and barrier defect in CEABAC10 mice and Crohn's disease patients.

Denizot J, Sivignon A, Barreau F, Darcha C, Chan HF, Stanners CP, Hofman P, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Barnich N.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21688348


Role of meprins to protect ileal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients from colonization by adherent-invasive E. coli.

Vazeille E, Bringer MA, Gardarin A, Chambon C, Becker-Pauly C, Pender SL, Jakob C, Müller S, Lottaz D, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...ne.0021199.pdf


Characterization of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli isolated from pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Negroni A, Costanzo M, Vitali R, Superti F, Bertuccini L, Tinari A, Minelli F, Di Nardo G, Nuti F, Pierdomenico M, Cucchiara S, Stronati L.

Rome, Italy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21994005


Replication of Crohn's disease-associated AIEC within macrophages is dependent on TNF-α secretion.

Bringer MA, Billard E, Glasser AL, Colombel JF, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.nature.com/labinvest/jour...t2011156a.html


Crohn disease-associated Escherichia coli promote gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders by activation of HIF-dependent responses.

Mimouna S, Gonçalvès D, Barnich N, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Hofman P, Vouret-Craviari V.

Nice, France

http://www.landesbioscience.com/jour...che=1026489613


2012


Defects in autophagy favour adherent-invasive Escherichia coli persistence within macrophages leading to increased pro-inflammatory response.

Lapaquette P, Bringer MA, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...50D6ABB.d01t02


AIEC colonization and pathogenicity: influence of previous antibiotic treatment and preexisting inflammation.

Drouet M, Vignal C, Singer E, Djouina M, Dubreuil L, Cortot A, Desreumaux P, Neut C.

Lille, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22344932


A potential role of Escherichia coli pathobionts in the pathogenesis of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

Schippa S, Iebba V, Totino V, Santangelo F, Lepanto M, Alessandri C, Nuti F, Viola F, Di Nardo G, Cucchiara S, Longhi C, Conte MP.

Rome, Italy

http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/..._pub%3dpubmed&


Multidrug resistance is common in Escherichia coli associated with ileal Crohn's disease

Dogan B, Scherl E, Bosworth B, Yantiss R, Altier C, McDonough PL, Jiang ZD, Dupont HL, Garneau P, Harel J, Rishniw M, Simpson KW.

New York, USA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22508665


Infection strategies of enteric pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Clements A, Young JC, Constantinou N, Frankel G.

London, UK

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti.../gmic-3-71.pdf


Bile salts induce long polar fimbriae expression favouring Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli interaction with Peyer's patches.

Chassaing B, Etienne-Mesmin L, Bonnet R, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...824.x/abstract


Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli blocks interferon-γ-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 in human intestinal epithelial cells.

Ossa JC, Ho NK, Wine E, Leung N, Gray-Owen SD, Sherman PM.

Toronto, ON, Canada

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...12048/abstract


The σE pathway is involved in biofilm formation by Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli.

Chassaing B, Darfeuille-Michaud A.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://jb.asm.org/content/195/1/76.long


Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli adhesion is enhanced by exposure to the ubiquitous dietary polysaccharide maltodextrin.

Nickerson KP, McDonald C.

Ohio, USA

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0052132




Subversion of Autophagy in Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli-Infected Neutrophils Induces Inflammation and Cell Death

Abderrahman Chargui, Annabelle Cesaro, Sanda Mimouna, Mohamed Fareh, Patrick Brest, Philippe Naquet, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud,Xavier Hébuterne, Baharia Mograbi, Valérie Vouret-Craviari, Paul Hofman

Nice, France

http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0051727

2013

Western diet induces dysbiosis with increased E coli in CEABAC10 mice, alters host barrier function favouring AIEC colonisation.

Martinez-Medina M, Denizot J, Dreux N, Robin F, Billard E, Bonnet R, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Barnich N.

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23598352


Crohn's disease AIEC invade macrophages by suppressing NFkB signaling

Khalidur Rahman, Maiko Sasaki, Jan-Michael A. Klapproth




Persistent infection with Crohn’s disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli leads to chronic inflammation and intestinal fibrosis

Cherrie-Lee N. Small, Sarah A. Reid-Yu, Joseph B. McPhee & Brian K. Coombes

Ontario, Canada

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/13...comms2957.html


Serological markers predict inflammatory bowel disease years before the diagnosis.

van Schaik FD, Oldenburg B, Hart AR, Siersema PD, Lindgren S, Grip O, Teucher B, Kaaks R, Bergmann MM, Boeing H, Carbonnel F, Jantchou P, Boutron-Ruault MC, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Crowe FL, Peeters PH, van Oijen MG, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB

Utrecht, The Netherlands

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842615


AIEC (LF82) are potently pro-inflammatory for monocytes, but not intestinal macrophages, in patients with crohn's disease.




Colonic mucosa-associated diffusely adherent afaC+ Escherichia coli expressing lpfA and pks are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer

Maelle Prorok-Hamon, Melissa K Friswell, Abdullah Alswied, Carol L Roberts,Fei Song, Paul K Flanagan, Paul Knight, Caroline Codling, Julian R Marchesi, Craig Winstanley, Neil Hall, Jonathan M Rhodes, Barry J Campbell

Liverpool, UK

http://gut.bmj.com/content/early/201....full.pdf+html


Increased S-Nitrosylation and Proteasomal Degradation of Caspase-3 during Infection Contribute to the Persistence of Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) in Immune Cells

Karl A. Dunne, Amr Allam, Anne McIntosh, Stephanie A. Houston, Vuk Cerovic,
Carl S. Goodyear, Andrew J. Roe, Scott A. Beatson, Simon W. Milling, Daniel Walker, Daniel M. Wall

Glasgow, UK
Queensland, Australia

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0068386


Crohn's Disease-associated Adherent Invasive Escherichia coli Affect Levels of microRNAs in Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Reduce Autophagy

Hang Thi Thu Nguyen, Guillaume Dalmasso, Stefan Müller, Jessica Carrière, Frank Seibold, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud

Clermont-Ferrand, France

http://www.gastrojournal.org/article...495-9/abstract

Last edited by kiny; 01-09-2014 at 11:37 PM.
06-06-2013, 10:24 AM   #2
kiny
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reserved
06-08-2013, 08:48 PM   #3
rollinstone
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My Support Groups:
I wonder if this is why SSI vaccines have shown so much promise?
06-13-2013, 01:16 PM   #4
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updated, still missing some from 2013 I know I linked in the past, but I'll find them when I have some more time
07-14-2013, 12:18 PM   #5
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updated
11-19-2013, 01:12 PM   #6
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updated November 19, 2013

added a few articles and fixed some spaces
01-09-2014, 11:55 PM   #7
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updated

Last edited by kiny; 01-10-2014 at 12:16 AM.
11-04-2014, 05:02 AM   #8
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Great work Kiny. Thanks for your posts. I always feel smarter after reading them :-)

Two questions:

Do AIEC bacteria respond to antibiotics?
How do we, as potentially vulnerable people, reduce our exposure to them? (Are they commonly caught through food poisoning?)
11-04-2014, 05:44 AM   #9
kiny
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Great work Kiny. Thanks for your posts. I always feel smarter after reading them :-)

Two questions:

Do AIEC bacteria respond to antibiotics?
How do we, as potentially vulnerable people, reduce our exposure to them? (Are they commonly caught through food poisoning?)
Yes, they respond to antibiotics like cipro. Although they gain resistance fast. On the flip side, antibiotics might also enable colonisation of AIEC because of changes in the microbiome.

It's not established how you get exposed to them afaik, some domestic animals like cats and dogs carry them and some people without crohn's disease carry AIEC too. It's the tipping point where AIEC strains are invasive and start to enter tissue and invade macrophages of people with crohn's disease who tend to have innate immunodeficiences, where the problems begin.
11-04-2014, 06:29 AM   #10
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I guess the triple antibiotics may help with resistance like combination therapy in AIDS. If it's one in a million for each new bacterium (likely in bacteria) that resistance will evolve then using three should give a million cubed.

I guess different gene variants of Crohn's may have different tipping points and immune weaknesses.

I remember having a pet bird with psittacosis which is caused by an intracellular bacteria. They had to treat that for a couple of months with doxycycline and even afterwards couldn't give me any reassurance that the infection was gone.

Here in the UK I'm always surprised by our general practitioners referring to the disease as an auto-immune one. The gastroenterologists seem to have accepted that it probably isn't!
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