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Crohn's Disease Forum » Books, Multimedia, Research & News » Hypothesis: Increased consumption of emulsifiers as an explanation for the rising incidence of Crohn's disease


11-17-2013, 11:36 AM   #1
kiny
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Hypothesis: Increased consumption of emulsifiers as an explanation for the rising incidence of Crohn's disease

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23360575

Carol L. Roberts,Sarah L. Rushworth,Emile Richman,Jonathan M. Rhodesemail

January 2013

Hypothesis: Increased consumption of emulsifiers as an explanation for the rising incidence of Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease (CD) incidence has increased over the past fifty years but the explanation is unclear. CD can be brought into remission by liquid enteral feeding, but the mechanism for this response is unknown. We suggest that consumption of emulsifiers in processed foods may promote CD by increasing bacterial translocation. This is supported by evidence that (i) geographical variation in CD correlates with emulsifier consumption as does the increasing incidence of CD in Japan; (ii) although CD incidence also correlates with fat consumption, the response to enteral feeding is not affected by the fat content of the feed and (iii) very small concentrations of the emulsifier polysorbate 80 enhance bacterial translocation across intestinal epithelia. Undigested emulsifiers may increase bacterial translocation, particularly in the small intestine where the mucus layer is discontinuous. The hypothesis should be testable by trials of enteral feeding with/without emulsifiers.
11-17-2013, 11:39 AM   #2
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Roberts CL, Keita AV, Duncan SH, O'Kennedy N, Söderholm JD, Rhodes JM, Campbell BJ

Translocation of Crohn's disease Escherichia coli across M-cells: contrasting effects of soluble plant fibres and emulsifiers.

BACKGROUND:

Crohn's disease is common in developed nations where the typical diet is low in fibre and high in processed food. Primary lesions overlie Peyer's patches and colonic lymphoid follicles where bacterial invasion through M-cells occurs. We have assessed the effect of soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) and food emulsifiers on translocation of Escherichia coli across M-cells.

METHODS:

To assess effects of soluble plant fibres and food emulsifiers on translocation of mucosa-associated E coli isolates from Crohn's disease patients and from non-Crohn's controls, we used M-cell monolayers, generated by co-culture of Caco2-cl1 and Raji B cells, and human Peyer's patches mounted in Ussing chambers.

RESULTS:

E coli translocation increased across M-cells compared to parent Caco2-cl1 monocultures; 15.8-fold (IQR 6.2-32.0) for Crohn's disease E coli (N=8) and 6.7-fold (IQR 3.7-21.0) for control isolates (N=5). Electron microscopy confirmed E coli within M-cells. Plantain and broccoli NSP markedly reduced E coli translocation across M-cells at 5 mg/ml (range 45.3-82.6% inhibition, p<0.01); apple and leek NSP had no significant effect. Polysorbate-80, 0.01% vol/vol, increased E coli translocation through Caco2-cl1 monolayers 59-fold (p<0.05) and, at higher concentrations, increased translocation across M-cells. Similarly, E coli translocation across human Peyer's patches was reduced 45±7% by soluble plantain NSP (5 mg/ml) and increased 2-fold by polysorbate-80 (0.1% vol/vol).

CONCLUSIONS:

Translocation of E coli across M-cells is reduced by soluble plant fibres, particularly plantain and broccoli, but increased by the emulsifier Polysorbate-80. These effects occur at relevant concentrations and may contribute to the impact of dietary factors on Crohn's disease pathogenesis.
11-17-2013, 06:27 PM   #3
Trysha
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Thank you Kiny for all the articles you peruse and share with us.
Very professional and most interesting.

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05-20-2015, 03:05 PM   #4
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http://www.researchgate.net/profile/...be92e18ee6.pdf

Research in animal models and cell lines have supplied us
with candidates for environmental factors that may allow
stimulation of the adaptive immune response by luminal bacteria.12
Bacterial adherence and translocation are inhibited by the
mucous layer, the integrity and selective permeability of the epithelium,
and bacterial clearance mechanisms. Processed or industrialized
foods contain numerous combinations of products that
may affect the intestines’ ability to contain bacteria to the lumen.
Roberts et al23 demonstrated that translocation of adherent invasive
E. coli (AIEC) across intestinal M cells and Peyer’s patches is
increased by exposure to low levels of a commonly used emulsi-
fier (polysorbate 80) commonly used in ice creams, whipping
creams, dessert toppings, and condiments. This emulsifier is in
dill pickles. Carboxymethylcellulose (E 466), an emulsifier and
thickener commonly used in dairy products, processed meats,
and breads may allow bacteria to migrate and adhere to the epithelium,
possibly by affecting the mucous layer.22 The microbiome
is clearly altered by diet.6 Milk fat and animal fat have
been shown to increase IP and alter the microbiome.21 Martinez
et al19 compared CEABAC10 mice with or without AIEC with
WT mice with or without AIEC; both groups were fed a western
diet rich in fats and simple sugars or regular chow. The Western
diet promoted mucin-degrading bacteria increased AIEC counts
and increased intestinal permeability.19 Gliadin from Gluten
induces zonulin release in the small intestine, increasing IP in
a dose-dependent fashion.34 Maltodextrin has been found to promote
AIEC biofilms and increase adhesion of AIEC strains to
epithelial cells and macrophages.35 Maltodextrin is a thickening
and binding agent found in breakfast cereals and aspartame and
sucralose, commonly used as artificial sweeteners
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