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Cytokine

Cytokines are small cell-signaling protein molecules.

Below, is a list of selected Cytokines involved in IBD.
InflammationIBD Type
CytokineAKAProAntiCDUCInducersEffectsRef
Interleukin 1IL1XXXHyperglycemia
IL8
LPS
M1M0
MCP1
COX2
Fever
Fibrosis
iNOS
PLA2
[1][4][6][11][12]
Interleukin 2IL2NFkB
T Cells
TH1 Cells
Vitamin D (Inhibits)
B Cell Proliferation
NK Cell Activation
NK Cell Proliferation
T Cell Proliferation
[6][8]
Interleukin 4IL4X(x)XIL10
M2M0
TH2 Cells
Arginase 1
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
Fibrosis
Immune Suppressor in Colon
Intestinal Hyperactivity
M2aM0
Stimulates B + T Cells
IL1 (Reduced)
TNF (Reduced)
TH2 Cells
VEGF (Reduced)
Wound Healing
[4][6][11][14]
Interleukin 5IL5XXTH2 CellsEosinophil Activation
Eosinophil Differentiation
Eosinophil Recruitment
[6][7]
Interleukin 6IL6XXXHyperglycemia
Intestinal Epithelium
M1M0
M2bM0
STAT3
TH2 Cells

Apoptosis Resistance of T Cells
B Cell Proliferation
Colon Cancer
C Reactive Protein (CRP)
Extraintestinal Manifestations
Fever
Fibrosis
Immune Cell Activation
NFkB
IL1 (Reduced)
Relapsing Crohn's Disease
TNF Reduced
[4][6][11]
Interleukin 8IL8XXHyperglycemiaNeutrophil Activation
Neutrophil Migration
[6]
Interleukin 10IL10XXXDendritic Cells
M2aM0
M2bM0
M2cM0
TH2 Cells
TReg Cells
Inhibits Antigen Presentation
IFN (with Reduced IL10)
IL4
IL12 (with Reduced IL10)
IL13
Inhibits TH1 Response
Inhibits TH17 Development
Immune Cell Activation/ Migration
Inhibits Inflammation
M2cM0
Wound Repair/ Remodeling
[4][6]
Interleukin 12IL12XXXDendritic Cells
Infection
M1M0
Antigen Phagocytosis
CD Early Phase
Fibrosis
IFN gamma
TH1 Cells
Links Innate and Adaptive Immunity
[4][6][11][12]
Interleukin 13IL13XX(x)XGI Microbes
IL33
TH2 Cells
Colon Epithelial Cell Death
Fibrosis
Intestinal Hyperactivity
"Leaky Gut" (via Tight Junctions)
M2aM0
TH2
[4][6][7][10][11][14]
Interleukin 17IL17XXXX
IL23
TH17 Cells
Autoimmune Inflammation
IL17
IL22
IFN
Immune Cell Migration
[6]
Interleukin 18IL18XXIL10 Reduced
Lymphocyte Proliferation
Pediatric CD
TH1
[6]
Interleukin 19IL19XXLPS
Activated M0
suppress IL6, IL12, TNF
Interleukin 21IL21XXXIL12
T Cells
IFN gamma
MMP1
MMP3
Mucosal Injury
Treg (Inhibited)
TH1
[6]
Interleukin 22IL22XXAhR Binding
Helminths
TH17 Cells
Goblet Cell Hyperplasia
Mucin
[6]
Interleukin 23IL23XXXX
Bacteria
IL6
IL10 (Deficiency)
IL17
M1M0
MMP9
Development of TH17 Cells
IFN
IL17
IL22
Intestinal Inflammation
Proliferation of TH17 Cells
Treg Cells Reduced
[4][6]
Interleukin 25IL25TH2 CellsAllergic Response
Eosinophils
Epithelial Cell Hyperplasia
Epithelial Cell Hypertrophy
IgA, IgE, IgG1
IL4
IL5
IL13
Mucus (Lung, GI)
[9]
Interleukin 27IL27XXDendritic Cells
Monocytes
IFN
T Cell Proliferation
[6]
Interleukin 33IL33X(x)XDead/ Damaged GI Epithelium
IL1B
PAMPs
TNF
Allergy
Anaphylaxis
Angiogenesis
Cancer in UC
Epithelial Cell Hyperplasia
GI Wound Healing
IgE
IL5
IL13
Mucus Secretion
TH2 Effects
Immune Cell Infiltration
RA
[2][3][6]
InterferonIFNXTH1 Cells
Vitamin D (Inhibits)
Activates M1M0
IL12
IL23
Reduces TH2 Response
Immune Cell Migration
[4][8]
Tumor Necrosis Factor alphaTNFaXX(x)Hyperglycemia
LPS
M1M0
M2bM0
TH1 Cells
Vitamin D (Inhibits)
Adhesion Molecules
Cell Death
Cell Development
Cell Change
Cell Proliferation
Cell Survival
Coagulants
CRP
Fever
Fibrosis
IFN
IL1B
IL6
IL33
Immune Cell Recruitment
Inflammation
NFkB
M1M0
[4][6][8][11][12]
Transforming Growth Factor BTGFBXXXM2aM0
M2cM0
TReg Cells
Collagen
EMT of Intestinal Epithelium
Fibrosis
Fistula Formation
IFN (Reduced)
IL2 (Reduced)
IL13
Inflammation (Reduced)
IgE (Reduced)
IL33 (Reduced)
M2cM0 (Reduced)
Strictures
TNF(Reduced)
[4][6][11]


It has been shown that Vitamin D helps limit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines thus deficiency may lead to an overproduction of them.[8]

References

1. McAlindon ME, Hawkey CJ, Mahida YR. Expression of interleukin 1B and interleukin 1a converting enzyme by intestinal macrophages in health and inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1998; 42: 214-219. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...v042p00214.pdf

2. Pastorelli L, Garg RR, Hoang SB, Spina L, Mattioli B, Scarpa M, Fiocchi C, Vecchi M, Pizarro TT. Epithelial-derived IL-33 and its receptor ST2 are dysregulated in ulcerative colitis and in experimental Th1/Th2 driven enteritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107:80178022. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti....200912678.pdf

3. Pastorelli L, De Salvo C, Cominelli MA, Vecchi M, Pizarro TT. Novel cytokine signaling pathways in inflammatory bowel disease: insight into the dichotomous functions of IL-33 during chronic intestinal inflammation. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2011;4:311323. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...3X11410770.pdf

4. Hao N-B, Lu M-H, Fan Y-H, Cao Y-L, Zhang Z-R, Yang S-M. Macrophages in TumorMicroenvironments and the Progression of Tumors. Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 2012; Article ID 948098: doi:10.1155/2012/948098 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...012-948098.pdf

5. Cardilo-Reis L, Gruber S, Schreier SM, Drechsler M, Papac-Milicevic N, Weber C, Wagner O, Stangl H, Soehnlein O, Binder CJ. Interleukin-13 protects from atherosclerosis and modulates plaque composition by skewing the macrophage phenotype. EMBO Mol Med. 2012; 4: 10721086. doi: 10.1002/emmm.201201374. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...m0004-1072.pdf

6. Muzes G, Molnar B, Tulassay Z, Sipos F. Changes of the cytokine profile in inflammatory bowel diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(41): 5848-5861. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...JG-18-5848.pdf

7. Fuss IJ, Heller F, Boirivant M, Leon L, Yoshida M, Fichtner-Feigi S, Yang Z, Exley M, Kitani A, Blumberg RS, Mannon P, Strober W. Nonclassical CD1d-restricted NK T cells that produce IL-13 characterize an atypical Th2 response in ulcerative colitis.Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2004; 113(10): 1490-1497. doi:10.1172/JCI200419836. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...JCI0419836.pdf

8. Youssef DA, Miller CWT, El-Abbassi AM, Cutchins DC, Cutchins C, Grant WB, Peiris AN. Antimicrobial implications of vitamin D. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2011; 3(4): 220-229. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...e0304_0220.pdf

9. Fort MM, Cheung J, Yen D, Li, J, Zurawski SM, Lo S, Menon S, Clifford T, Hunte B, Lesley R, Muchamuel T, Hurst SD, Zurawski G, Leach MW, Gorman DM, Rennick DM. IL-25 induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and Th2-associated pathologies in vivo. Immunity. 2001; 15(6): 985-995. http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1074761301002...33ecef52adad37

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retri...613(01)00243-6

10. Rosen MJ, Frey MR, Washington MK, Chaturvedi R, Kuhnheim LA, Matta P, Revetta FL, Wilson KT, Polk DB. STAT6 Activation in Ulcerative Colitis: A New Target for Prevention of IL-13-Induced Colon Epithelial Cell Dysfunction. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011; 17(11): 2224-2234. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...ihms258343.pdf

11. Lafyatis R, Farina A. New Insights into the Mechanisms of Innate Immune Receptor Signalling in Fibrosis. The Open Rheumatology Journal. 2012; 6(Suppl1: M2): 72-79. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti.../TORJ-6-72.pdf

12. Hunt R. Immunology. Microbiology and Immunology On-line. University of South Carolina School of Medicine. Updated November 2009; Accessed February 2013. [urlhttp://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/book/immunol-sta.htm[/url]

13. Caprioli F, Caruso R, Sarra M, Pallone F, Monteleone G. Disruption of inflammatory signals by cytokine-targeted therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2012. 165: 820-828. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...h0165-0820.pdf

14. http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/288/4/G609.full.pdf

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