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Omega 3 Fatty Acids

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Omega 3 Fatty Acids

  • EicosaPentaenoic Acid (EPA) 20:5 n3; DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA) 22:6 n3
  • Marine plants (Algae)
  • Fish, Fish oil, Seafood
  • EPA, DHA metabolism produces pain relieving compounds
  • EPA, DHA compete against the Inflammatory fatty acid, Arachadonic Acid (AA) 20:4 n6[11]

EPA / DHA Supplementation

  • Anti - Inflammatory
  • Antioxidants + EPA / DHA Lowers IFN - gamma production by stimulated Immune Cells[14]
  • Antioxidants + EPA / DHA Lowers PGE2 by Immune cells stimulated by LPS - Lipopolysaccharide[14]
  • Lowers IL2 - Interleukin 2 levels[3]
  • Decreases proliferation of Immune Cells (Mononuclear Cells)[3]
  • Increased Omega-3 levels in fatty tissue is correlated with a Decrease in Atherosclerotic plaques. [2]
  • EPA Treatment can improve some symptoms of Depression[8]
  • EPA and DHA can improve Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) symptoms.[4][5]

Low EPA / DHA Intake is Associated With

  • Alzheimer's Disease risk increased
  • Brain Function / Cognition Reduced (esp. in aging)
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Fetal Development Impaired
  • Inflammation, Inflammatory Diseases
  • SLE Patients with low omega 3 Fatty Acids have increased disease activity[2]

EPA and DHA Supplementation

A number of positive health effects have been seen with EPA and DHA supplementation. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should ingest 300 - 900 mg EPA and DHA per day.

For More Information on other Vitamins and Minerals check out: Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies

References

1. Calder PC. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes. Nutrients. 2010; 2(3): 355–374. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...s-02-00355.pdf

2. Elkan A-C, Anania C, Gustafsson T, Jogestrand T, Hafström I, Frostegård. Diet and fatty acid pattern among patients with SLE: associations with disease activity, blood lipids and atherosclerosis. J. Lupus. 2012; 21(13): 1405-1411.

3. Endres S, Meydani SN, Ghorbani R, Schindler R, Dinarello CA. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids suppresses interleukin-2 production and mononuclear cell proliferation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology vol. 54 no. 6 599-603. http://www.jleukbio.org/content/54/6/599.full.pdf

4. Galarraga B, Ho M, Youssef HM, Hill A, McMahon H, Hall C, Ogston S, Nuki G, Belch JJ. Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008 May;47(5):665-9. http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.o....full.pdf+html

5. Goldberg RJ, Katz J. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain. 2007; 129(1-2): 210-223.

6. Johansson S, Lonnqvist A, Ostman S, Sandberg A-S, Wold AE. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are consumed during allergic inflammation and affect T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-mediated hypersensitivity differently. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 June; 160(3): 411–419. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...i0160-0411.pdf

7. Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev. 2007; 12(3): 207-227. http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/12/3/207.pdf

8. Martins JG. EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Oct;28(5):525-42. http://www.jacn.org/content/28/5/525.full.pdf+html

9. Mocking RJT, Assies J, Bot M, Jansen EHJM, Schene AH, Pouwer F. Biological Effects of Add-On Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation in Diabetes Mellitus and Co-Morbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e49431. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...ne.0049431.pdf

10. Phillips, Michelle A.; Childs, Caroline E.; Calder, Philip C.; Rogers, Peter J. Lower omega-3 fatty acid intake and status are associated with poorer cognitive function in older age: A comparison of individuals with and without cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Nutritional Neuroscience. Nov2012, Vol. 15 Issue 6, p271-277.

11. Ramsden CE, Mann JD, Faurot KR, et al. Low omega-6 vs. low omega-6 plus high omega-3 dietary intervention for Chronic Daily Headache: Protocol for a randomized clinical trial. Trials. 2011; 11(97): doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-97 http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/12/1/97

12. Russell FD, Burgin-Maunder CS. Distinguishing Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids. Mar Drugs. 2012 November; 10(11): 2535–2559. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...s-10-02535.pdf

13. Shek LP, Chong MF-F, Lim JY, Soh S-E, Chong Y-S. Role of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Allergies and Respiratory Diseases. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...012-730568.pdf

14. Trebble TMM, Arden NK, Wootton SA, Calder PC, Mullee MA, Fine DR, Stroud MA. Fish oil and antioxidants alter the composition and function of circulating mononuclear cells in Crohn disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 80(5): 1137-1144. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/80....full.pdf+html

15. Simopoulos AP. The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases. Exp Biol Med. 2008; 233(6): 674-688. http://ebm.rsmjournals.com/content/233/6/674.full.pdf

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