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Antibiotics

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About Antibiotics

The word Antibiotic literally means "against" (anti) "life" (biotic).

Many Antibiotics are actually Naturally produced by Microorganisms (Bacteria or Fungi) to kill or slow the growth of other Microorganisms. They are purified by pharmaceutical companies for use in treatment.

Other antibiotics can be fully produced in the laboratory and are called Synthetic Antibiotics.

Semisynthetic antibiotics are chemically modified Natural antibiotics. These chemical modifiers can enhance many different properties of the Antibiotic, including:
- Protection from Bacterial Resistance
- Alter Tissue Distribution and/or Absorption
- Reduce Toxicity / Side Effects

Antibiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) often have alteration in Gastrointestinal Microbe balance or Bacterial Overgrowth. The greatest numbers of bacteria are found in areas of the Terminal Ileum and the Colon.

Antibiotics can be given to IBD patients:
-- To Treat an Existing Infection
-- To Prevent Against the Patient Getting an Infection (also called Antibiotic Prophylaxis or Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment)
-- During Surgery or Certain Tests / Treatment to reduce Infection and Bacteremia Risk
---- Colonoscopy (0 - 25% Risk) [3]
---- Esophageal Bougienage (12 - 22% Risk) [3]
---- Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (0 - 1% Risk)[3]
---- Gastroscopy (0 - 8% Risk)[3]
---- Stricture Dilation [3]
---- Variceal Ligation (1 - 25%)or Sclerotherapy (0 - 52%)[3]

Types of Antibiotics

Aminoglycosides:[14]
- Gentamycin
- Neomycin
- Streptomycin

Ansamycins:[14]
- Rifampin

Beta - Lactam Antibiotics:[14]
- Amoxicillin
- Amoxicillin - Clavulanate
- Ampicillin
- Augmentin[4][5]
- Carbenicillin
- Cefaclor - oral
- Cefamandole
- Cefazolin
- Cefazolin
- Cefdinir [6]
- Cefepime
- Cefixime
- Cefmetazole
- Cefonicid
- Cefoperazone
- Cefotaxime
- Cefotetan
- Cefoxitin
- Cefpirome
- Cefpodoxime
- Ceftaroline
- Ceftaroline
- Ceftazidime
- Ceftin
- Ceftizoxime
- Ceftobiprole
- Ceftriaxone
- Cefuroxime
- Cephalexin
- Cephalosporin
- Cephalothin
- Cephalothin
- Cephapirin
- Cephapirin
- Cephradine - oral
- Faropenem
- Geocillin
- Imipenem
- Keflex
- Lorabid
- Loracarbef
- Moxalactam
- Omnicef
- Oxacillin
- Penicillin

Cyclic Peptides:

Glycopeptides:[14]
- Vancomycin

Lincosamides:

Quinolones / Fluoroquinolones:[14]
- Avelox
- Cipro [8][9]
- Ciprofloxacin [8][9]
- Levofloxacin
- Ofloxacin
- Moxifloxacin

Macrolide:
- Biaxin
- Clarithomycin
- Erythromycin
- Zithromax

MLSK:[14]
- Azithromycin
- Erythromycin
- Clarithromycin
- Clindamycin
- Telithromycin

Oxazolidinoes:[14]

Sulfonamides or Sulfa Drugs:

Tetracyclines:[14]
- Doxycycline
- Minocycline
- Tetracycline

Warnings About Antibiotics

Allergies and Hypersensitivities
The possibility of an Allergic Reaction or Hypersensitivity may occur when taking any medication. This includes Antibiotics. If you have had a reaction or known allergy to an Antibiotic in the past, ensure all of your doctors and nurses know of the reaction.

Reactions to Antibiotics can be Mild to Life Threatening. Severe and Life Threatening Reactions can Include, but are not limited to:
Allergy / Hypersensitivity
Anaphylaxis
Anemia
Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea - AAD
Arrhythmia of the Heart
Asthma / Bronchospasm
Bleeding / Reduced Blood Clotting
Blood Pressure Loss
Clostridium difficile Infection / Clostridium-Associated Diarrhea (CdAD)
Dysbiosis
Confusion
Dizziness / Loss of Balance (may be permanent)
Hallucinations
Fever
Hearing Loss
Hyperglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)
Hyperkalemia
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
Hypokalemia
Leukopenia - Low White Blood Cell counts in the blood
Nerve Damage
Peripheral Neuropathy
Phlebitis
Pseudomembranous Colitis
Rash / Skin Lesions / Loss of Skin
Siezure
Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS)
Thrombocytopenia - Low Platelet count in the blood
Torsades de Pointes - Long QT Interval
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)
Toxicity to Heart, Kidney or Liver

Consider a "Medic Alert" type bracelet or anklet (especially for children) and a notation of the Allergy in your Phone and/or Purse / Wallet.
Be Sure to Note:
-- Note the Name of the Medication - Include all known names for the drug (Generic, Trade Name)
-- What is the Exact Physical Reaction you have when taking the drug?
-- Emergency contact(s) for further information (ex. your physician, spouse, parent, family member, etc.).
-- Other Medication you are taking and your Other Physical Conditions / Diagnoses.

Some Antibiotics are more likely than others to cause a specific reaction. Consult individual Antibiotic wikis for more information.

Antibiotic Interactions with Other Medication you are Taking

References

1. Todar K. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. www.textbookofbacteriology.net Accessed September 2012.

2. Rollins DM. and Joseph SW. Pathogenic Microbiology. http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/index.html Updated August 2000. Accessed September 2012.

3. Antibiotic prophylaxis for GI endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2008; 67(6): 791-798. www.asge.org/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=4298

4. Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium) Tablets. Prescribing Information. GlaxoSmithKline. 2006. Accessed September 2012. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsa...720s024lbl.pdf

5. AUGMENTIN (amoxicillin and clavulante potassium) - Physicians Total Care, Inc.
http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed...0-ea3039786480

6. Omnicef - Cefdinir (Antibiotic. Abbott Laboratories)
http://www.rxabbott.com/pdf/omnicef.pdf

7. Metronidazole (Flagyl)
http://labeling.pfizer.com/ShowLabeling.aspx?id=570

8. Cipro (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) - Bayer HealthCare, Schering-Plough
http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsa...1473s24lbl.pdf

9. http://www.bayer.ca/files/CIPRO-PM-E...012-150473.pdf

10. Xifaxan - (Rifaximin) Salix Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
http://www.salix.com/assets/pdf/pres.../xifaxanpi.pdf

11. Granowitz EV. and Brown RB. Antibiotic Adverse Reactions and Drug Interactions. Crit Care Clin. 2008; 24: 421-442. http://clinicalevidence.pbworks.com/...20LOS%20AB.pdf

12. Avelox. Accessed October 2012. http://www.avelox.com

13. Avelox Full Prescribing Information. Updated August 2012. Accessed October 2012. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsa...277s052lbl.pdf

14. Antibiotic Classification Antibiotic Classification. BioMerieux[TM], Inc. 2008. Accessed October 2012. http://www.biomerieux-usa.com/upload...f-Action-1.pdf http://www.biomerieux-usa.com

15. Kalant H. The Pharmacology of Semisynthetic Antibiotics. Can Med Assoc J. 1965; 93(16): 839-843. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...01122-0002.pdf

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