Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to an infection. Each antibody is specific for a small portion of the infectious agent, or Antigen.

An Antibody Titer can be part of Doctor Ordered Blood Tests.

Types of Antibodies

- There are 5 different types, or Isotypes, of Antibody made by the body. Each Isotype has a different role in the Immune Response.
- An Antibody is also called an Immunoglobulin (used in naming the different Isotypes).
Immunoglobulin G - IgG

- Immunoglobulin G, or IgG, are the major type of Antibody found in the blood.

- IgG is a Monomer.

- IgG binding can stimulate phagocytosis of an Antigen by Neutrophils or Macrophages.

- IgG binding can stimulate NK Cells to induce cell killing programs.

*Check out 3-D Animations of IgG Molecular Structure at these Outside Websites:
Proteopedia and University of Massachusetts Amherst
Immunoglobulin A - IgA

- Immunoglobulin A, or IgA, is a dimer.
- IgA is found in the blood but most often found in substances secreted by the body (breast milk, mucous, saliva, etc.)
- IgA can activate the Alternative Complement Pathway.

*Check out this Outside Website to see the 3-D Animated Molecular Structure of IgA:
Immunoglobulin M - IgM

- Immunoglobulin M, or IgM, is a Pentamer or as a monomer when expressed on the surface of B-cells.
- IgM is the first Isotype of Antibody produced by the Immune system in response to infection.
- IgM can activate the Classical Complement Pathway.
Immunoglobulin D - IgD
Immunoglobulin E - IgE

Antibodies Used in Testing

Antibodies can be used to test for certain diseases. The most common tests for IBD performed with antibodies are Prometheus IBD sgi Diagnostic and ELISA.






5. Classical Pathway.

6. Alternative Pathway.

7. "Antibody." Proteopedia: Life in 3D.

8. Bonner A, Furtado PB, Almogren A, Kerr MA, Perkins SJ. Implications of the near-planar solution structure of human myeloma dimeric IgA1 for mucosal immunity and IgA nephropathy. J Immunol. 2008;180(2):1008-18.

9. Martz E. Antibody Tutorial. Copyright 2007. Accessed May 2012.



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