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Blood test codes and results explained

This section helps you to understand what blood tests your doctor has ordered, why they have been ordered, and what the results may mean. It is only a guide, if any of your blood test results are abnormal you should consult with your doctor.

This is an excellent website that gives a thorough explanation all blood tests. It is easy to use and allows you to select your country of origin...

*NRR = Normal Reference Range. Please note that the figures quoted can vary between pathology labs. When you receive a copy of your results, NRR for that lab will be displayed next to each result.


Antibody Titer
Antibody Titer tests are performed to determine your Immune Response to an Antigen. This may be a Immunization or Vacine, Microbe (i.e. Virus, Bacteria, or Fungus), Chemical, Allergen or Substances produced by your body ("Self" Proteins).

The most common method of Antibody Titer testing is done by ELISA. Antibody Titers can be performed on multiple different body fluids depending on what your doctor is testing and can include:
- Blood / Serum Test
- Urine / Urinalysis
- Saliva (Spit)
- Mucus
FBC (Full Blood Count) or CBC (Complete Blood Count). This measures the red and white blood cells, and platelets in the blood. It is standard whenever blood is tested.
Haemoglobin / Hemoglobin (U.S) NRR 13.2-16.2 gm/dL (Male) 12.0-15.2 gm/dL (Female) - used in the red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body. Low haemoglobin indicates anaemia, which can have several causes.
Platelets NRR 140-450x103/無 - helps the blood to clot. Too low indicates you are at risk of excessive bleeding, and is called Thrombocytopenia. A platelet count that is too high is called Thrombocythemia and can cause Clubbed Fingers and increased risk of Blood Clots.
WBC NRR 4.1-10.9x103/無 - White blood count. Too low indicates the immune system is suppressed. Too high can indicate infection.
MCH NRR 26-34 pg - Mean corpsicle haemoglobin. The average amount of haemoglobin in each red blood cell. Too low can indicate iron deficiency anaemia.
MCHC NRR 31-35 gm/dL - Mean corpsicle haemoglobin concentration. Whether the red blood cell has the right amount of haemoglobin for its size. In cases of iron deficiency anaemia, this result may be normal.
HCT NRR 40-52% (Male) 37-46% (Female) 31-43% (Child) - Haematocrit. Measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. It is an indicator of anaemia, bleeding and nutritional deficiencies (B12, Iron and Folate).
MCVNRR 82-102 fL (Male) 78-101 fL (Female) - Mean corpsicle volume. Whether the red blood cells are the right size. Too low can indicate iron deficiency anaemia.
RBC NRR 4.3-6.2x106/無 (Male) 3.8-5.5x106/無 (Female) 3.8-5.5x106/無 (Infant/Child) - Red blood count. The number of red blood cells in the blood. This result may be normal in iron deficiency anaemia.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. NRR male <50 years 1-7 mm/hour >50 years 2-10 mm/hour, female <50 years 3-9 mm/hour >50 years 5-15 mm/hour. How 'sticky' the proteins in the blood are. Too high indicates acute inflammation in the body. ESR changes quite quickly, therefore can be used to assess the effectiveness of medications. However ESR can be raised by other inflammation in the body (non-IBD related).
C-Reactive Protein. NRR <5.0 mg/L. Too high indicates chronic (ongoing) inflammation in the body. CRP can be used to assess remission/flare status. Note: some patients can have low CRP even in a flare.

For more information on CRP Click HERE
Liver function tests. Assesses how well the liver is functioning. Used to monitor patients taking azathioprine, to ensure the medication is not damaging the liver.
ALT NRR 5-40 U/L - Alanine Transaminase is an enzyme that is released into the blood when the liver is damaged or diseased.
Gamma GT NRR males <50 U/L, females <30 U/L - Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, detects diseases of the liver and bile ducts.
Total Bilirubin NRR 2-20 mol/L - this is a product formed from destroying old red blood cells.
Total Alk. Phos. NRR adult, non pregnant 25-100 U/L, growing children 70-300 U/L - Alkaline Phosphatase, helps to detect liver disease.
Albumin NRR 35-47 g/L - helps to detect disorders affecting the liver and kidney. Low levels can also be an indicator malnutrition, malabsorption and severe inflammation.
U and E
Urea and electrolytes. Used to assess kidney function.
Sodium NRR 135-145 mmol/L - this is one of the electrolytes used within cells. It is processed from salt. Too high or low can mean kidneys are not functioning properly, that the person is suffering from dehydration, they are not absorbing salt correctly (particularly in patients with terminal ileum involvement) or the diet is too high or low in salt.
Potassium NRR 3.8-4.9 mmol/L - this is another electrolyte used within cells. Too high or low can indicate problems with kidney function, dehydration or diet.
Urea NRR 3.0-8.0 mmol/L - This is a waste product within the blood, that the kidneys filter out to form urine. Too high can indicate a problem with the kidneys or dehydration.
Creatinine NRR 0.05-0.12 mmol/L - Is a waste chemical that is filtered by the kidney. High levels may indicate damage to the kidney.
Haematology- differential
This measures the different types of white blood cells. Numbers given are absolutes (that is the actual number of each type present rather than as a proportion of all the white blood cells). If the overall WBC is too high or low, the numbers of each type of white blood cell can help the physician to determine the cause.
Neutrophils NRR 2.0-7.5 x 109/L - high levels may indicate acute infection, stress or Rheumatoid Arthritis. Low levels may be due to widespread bacterial infection, influenza or caused as side effect of some of the drugs used to treat IBD
Lymphocytes NRR 1.5-4.0 x 109/L - raised levels may be due to chronic infection, viral infection or infectious hepatitis. Low levels may be caused by sepsis or from the side effects of some of the drugs used to treat IBD.
Monocytes NRR 0.2-0.8 x 109/L - These can be raised through stress, inflammation, or immune disorders. They can be low after treatment with glucocorticosteroids (such as prednisolone).
Eosinophils NRR 0.04-0.4 x 109/L - If these are too high it may indicate the presence of an eosinophilic disorder, which can have similar symptoms to an IBD.
Basophils NRR <0.1 x 109/L - levels increase when there is inflammation present caused by things like an allergic reaction or Asthma.
Iron stores. NRR male 30-300 痢/L, female 15-200 痢/L. The body needs iron to make haemoglobin. Low ferritin indicates iron deficiency, however ferritin levels can be artificially raised if inflammation is present.
B12 and folate
B12 NRR 120-680 pmol/L, Folate NRR serum 7-45 nmol/L. These are two b-vitamins, that your body needs for the processing of energy. Too low usually indicates a problem with absorption, however vegans may lnot get enough b12 in their diet and should consider supplements.
Thiopurine s-methyltransferase.
NRR >17.0 U/mL RBC (normal)
11.9-17.0 U/mL RBC (ambiguous range)
15.4-17.0 U/mL RBC (probable low normal)
11.9-15.3 U/mL RBC (possible carrier)
6.0-11.8 U/mL RBC (carrier range)
0.0-5.9 U/mL RBC (homozygous deficient range)
TPMT is usually ordered by the doctor if you are about to start treatment with a thiopurine drug such as Azathioprine. If you have no detectable TPMT activity then you are at risk of developing severe side effects to thiopurine drugs. Usually the doctor will find an alternative drug treatment.
A low blood TPMT activity puts you at risk of less serious side effects such as hair loss, stomach pain, diarrhoea and inflammation of your pancreas. In this case the doctor may reduce the dose of thiopurine drug given.
Prometheus IBD sgi Diagnostic
The Prometheus IBD sgi Diagnostic is used to diagnose Inflammatory Bowel Disease and differentiate between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. For more information please see the Prometheus IBD sgi Diagnostic HERE.

Popular Threads Discussing Blood test codes and results explained

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05-07-2011, 04:14 PM   #1
Super Moderator
DustyKat's Avatar
Join Date: May 2010
Location: New South Wales, Australia
For parents:

*alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

A raised level of ALP in your child may not always be an indication of liver disease. If other LFT's are within normal limits an increased level of ALP may be indicating a growth spurt or puberty.

Before Sarah was diagnosed, aged 14 and a half, she showed no real signs of puberty. In the 6 months after surgery this changed dramatically and her ALP reflected this, it was substantially elevated for much of those 6 months.

Mum of 2 kids with Crohn's.
06-24-2011, 06:05 AM   #2
Senior Member
stefan's Avatar
Join Date: Sep 2010
Location: Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
For those outside of the US, don't be surprised if the Haemoglobin and MCHC figures are 10 times higher than suggested here.

Instead of measuring grams per litre, the US labs seem to have opted for the rare unit decilitre which can cause confusion, but of course always check the reference ranges provided by your lab anyway (there are 10 deciliters to a liter, which are both the same as 100 centiliters or 1000 milliliters)
09-03-2012, 11:55 AM   #3
Jennifer's Avatar
Join Date: Jan 2010
Location: California
For E.S.R. I'm getting conflicting info. Where did you guys get your information from? Got my info from Mayo Clinic and the numbers are nowhere near the same.

"The normal range is 0-22 mm/hr for men and 0-29 mm/hr for women. The upper threshold for a normal sed rate value may vary somewhat from one medical practice to another."

I'll use both information for now but I'd like to know the correct info if we're going to have a wiki.
Diagnosis: Crohn's in 1991 at age 9
Surgeries: 1 Small Bowel Resection in 1999; Central IV in 1991-92
Meds for CD: 6MP 75mg
Things I take: Tenormin 25mg (PVCs and Tachycardia), Junel (endometriosis), Tylenol 3 (Osteoarthritis), Zantac 150mg 2/day (acid reflux), Klonopin 1mg (Panic Disorder), Imitrex 25mg (migraines), Zofran 8mg (nausea)
Currently in: REMISSION Thought it was a flare but it's just scar tissue from my resection. Dealing with a stricture. Remission from my resection, 19 years and counting.
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