Choline is a water soluble essential nutrient found mostly in the body in fat molecules known as phospholipids. While a small amount of choline is synthesized by the body, it is not enough and therefore diet must include sufficient amounts to maintain health. Some research suggests only 1 in 10 adults get sufficient choline.[2]


Symptoms of Deficiency

- Fatty liver[1]
- Liver damage[1]
- Muscle damage[1]
- Elevated ALT levels (when B12 and folate levels are sufficient)[1]

Adequate Intake of Choline

Dietary Sources of Choline

Beef liver - 3 ounces - 355mg
Wheat germ - 1 cup - 172mg
Egg - 1 large - 126mg
Chicken Breast - 3oz - 73mg
Atlantic cod - ounces - 71mg
Beef -3 ounces - 67mg
Brussel sprouts -1 cup - 63mg
Broccoli - 1 cup - 62mg
Shrimp - 3 ounces - 60mg
Salmon - 3 ounces - 56mg
Cauliflower -1 cup - 47mg
Milk - 8 fl oz. - 38mg
Peanut butter - 2 tablespoons - 20mg
Milk chocolate - 1.5-ounce bar - 20mg


Patients on methotrexate have been shown to be at an increased risk of fatty liver and may benefit from choline supplementation.


The tolerable upper intake is set at 3.5 grams. Extremely high doses of choline (greater than 7.5 grams per day) have been correlated with fishy body odor, vomiting, excess salivation, decreased blood pressure, and sweating.


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