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Crypts of Lieberkühn

Crypts of Lieberkuhn, or Intestinal Crypts, are areas of the Intestinal Epithelium that form Crypts that resemble "Pits" (please see Figure 1). These Intestinal Crypts are important functional units of the Intestine and contain multiple cell populations including Paneth Cells and Stem Cells.

Contents


Stem Cells
Stem Cells located within the Crypts (Figure 1, Stem Cells shown in Yellow) give rise to the following new Epithelial Cells:
- Enterocytes
- Enteroendocrine Cells
- Paneth Cells
- Goblet Cells
Paneth Cells
Where are Paneth Cells Located?
Paneth Cells (Shown in Figure 1, Purple Cells) are located at the base of Intestinal Crypts of the Small Intestine and the beginning portion of the Large Intestine. They can be found within the Cecum but are found in the greatest density (per Crypt) in the Terminal Ileum.
Why are Paneth Cells Important?
- Paneth Cells function in the Innate Immune System of the Gastrointestinal Tract by secreting Antibacterial factors.
- Lysozyme
- Human Defensins (HD-5, HD-6). Shown in Figure 1 Red and Blue Circles.
Paneth Cell Response to Inflammation
- In cases of Intestinal Inflammation and/or Bacterial Overgrowth (including SIBO), Paneth Cells increase in number and may be found throughout the entire Intestine.
- Bacterial Overgrowth increases Paneth Cell secretion of Defensins.
Paneth Cells in Ulcerative Colitis
- In Ulcerative Colitis numbers of Paneth Cells can increase to the point that secreted factors can cause tissue damage due to Auto-Digestion. A vicious cycle can begin in which Paneth Cell-Induced mucosal damage causes repair pathway incduction and Cell Proliferation which further increases Paneth Cell numbers.[4]
Paneth Cells in Crohn's Disease
- In some patients with Crohn's Disease, Paneth Cell numbers do not increase during Inflammation.
- Patients with the NOD2 / CARD15 Gene Mutation 1007fs implicated in Crohn's Disease do not increase secretion of HD-5 from Paneth Cells during conditions of intestinal bacterial overgrowth.[5]
Goblet Cells
[pos]Figure 1[/pos]Figure 1: Small Intestine Showing Crypt of Lieberkuhn

References

4. Lewin K. The Paneth cell in disease. Gut. 1969; 10: 804-811. http://gut.bmj.com/content/10/10/804.full.pdf+html

5. Bevins CL, Stange EF, and Wehkamp J. Decreased Paneth cell defensin expression in ileal Crohn’s disease is independent of inflammation, but linked to the NOD2 1007fs genotype. Gut.2009; 58:882-883. http://gut.bmj.com/content/53/11/1558.full.pdf+html

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06-16-2012, 09:18 PM   #1
Trysha
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This is most interesting and very enlightening.
Thank you for the hard work and posting this Judith
Trysha
06-16-2012, 10:27 PM   #2
David
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Is it those stem cells that turn into the new epithelial cells?
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06-16-2012, 11:11 PM   #3
Judith
 
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This is most interesting and very enlightening.
Thank you for the hard work and posting this Judith
Trysha
Thank you Trysha.
06-16-2012, 11:12 PM   #4
Judith
 
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Is it those stem cells that turn into the new epithelial cells?
Yes. They give rise (eventually) to enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells.
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