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Hyponatremia, or low Sodium levels, is a serious condition which can be severe and can cause cardiovascular symptoms, permanent brain damage, breathing arrest, and even death.


Blood Test Values in Hyponatremia
Normal Blood Sodium ranges between 135 - 145 mEq/L
Hyponatremia can be categorized as mild, moderate or severe.
Mild - 130 - 135 mEq/L
Moderate - 120 - 129 mEq/L
Severe - Less than 120 mEq/L
Symptoms of Hyponatremia
Fall / Instability When Standing or Walking
Nausea / Vomiting
Muscle Cramping
Muscle Weakness
Feeling Tired, No Energy, Lethargic
Confusion or Attention Deficit
Feeling Disoriented
Slow or Depressed Reflexes
Types and Causes of Hyponatremia
Hypervolemic Natremia
Hypervolemic Natremia is characterized by:
- Increased Total Body Water
- Increased Total Body Sodium
- Very Increased Extracellular Fluid
- Presence of Edema

Causes of Hypervolemia:
- Kidney Failure
- Heart Failure
- Cirrhosis or Liver Failure
- Nephrotic Syndrome
Euvolemic Natremia
Euvolemic Natremia is characterized by:
- Increased Total Body Water
- Normal Total Body Sodium
- Increased Extracellular Fluid
- Absence of Edema

Causes of Euvolemia:
- Glucocorticoid Deficiency
- Syndrome of Inappropriate secretion of AntiDiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
- Some Medications
- Cancer
Hypovolemic Natremia
Hypovolemic Natremia is characterized by:
- Low Total Body Water
- Low Total Body Sodium
- Low Extracellular Fluid
- Absence of Edema

Causes of Hypovolemic Natremia:
- Diuretics (Especially Thiazide Diuretics)
- Mineralcortocoid Deficiency
- Nephritis (Inflammation of the Kidney)
- Increased Urine Output (Osmotic Diuresis)
- Ketonuria
- Third Spacing
- Excessive Exercise without Electrolyte Replacement
- Blood Loss (Excessive)

Treatment of Hyponatremia

Intravenous Fluids (IV Fluids)
Medications or Hormones


Hyponatremia: Can be a serious threat. Otsuka America Pharmaceutical Inc. October 2011. Accessed June 2012.

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